Women health

 Prevention and control of diseases

Certain daily practices are necessary to maintain good health. Infection prevention is crucial for preventing both the short-term discomfort of sickness and its long-term repercussions, as well as for lowering the danger of infection spread to people who may already be at high risk for serious illness.

More individuals are taking action to stop the spread of diseases as a result of the global focus on COVID-19 dangers and prevention, and the outcomes are to everyone's advantage.

Your risk of transmittable infections, regardless of the kind, can be decreased in a number of easy and efficient ways. Here are ten preventive habits you should include in your daily routine.

1. Washing your hands.

Depending on the surroundings and the pathogen (microorganism that causes disease), many infectious microorganisms can survive on surfaces for anywhere between a few minutes to several months at a time.

 This suggests that certain viruses and germs might be able to survive on objects you touch frequently, such as your computer keyboard, light switch, or doorknob.

The most common means for the transmission of infectious diseases include hand-to-face and hand-to-mouth contact.3 Regular hand washing is advised to avoid pathogen exposure on your lips, eyes, or nose. This can assist to reduce the transmission of this type of infection.

ALSO READ: 8 Infectious Diseases You Can Get Through Kissing

Proper Handwashing Methods

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises thoroughly and aggressively washing your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds—roughly the length of time it takes to sing "Happy Birthday" twice—and then air drying or patting dry with a clean towel.

A hand sanitizer or wipe with alcohol in it will work if you don't have access to water and soap.

Additionally, you should refrain from picking your nose or biting your fingernails, especially if your hands haven't been cleansed. Do the same for your children.

Avoid sharing private items

Towels, razors, handkerchiefs, nail clippers, and toothbrushes can all serve as reservoirs for infectious diseases like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. The term "fomites" is used to describe items or materials that can transmit infection, such as clothing, kitchenware, or furniture.

There are several infections that could be spread by fomites, notwithstanding the low risk of transmission for many of them.

These comprise:

  • C. diff, also known as Clostridium difficile
  • Bacterium Escherichia coli
  • Diseases of the mouth, foot, and hand
  • Body lice
  • Influenza
  • Norovirus
  • Inflammatory respiratory syncytial virus
  • Rhinovirus, a virus linked to the common cold
  • Skin infections due to Staphylococcus
  • Streptococcus

Teach your children not to put things in their mouths and refrain from doing it yourself (like chewing on a pencil).

Close Your Mouth

When you cough or sneeze, you should always cover your mouth as part of good hygiene.

Droplets that can infect persons close can spread a lot of respiratory illnesses. Others are transmitted through airborne transmission, in which little aerosol particles can infect others over greater distances.

When a person has an upper respiratory tract infection, where the virus or bacterium primarily lives in the nose and throat, the risk is increased. Even some lower respiratory tract illnesses, such as tuberculosis, can spread by coughing.

The CDC advises against covering your mouth with your bare hands in order to minimize the spread of respiratory illnesses. Instead, use your arm, sleeve, or the crook of your elbow.

ALSO READ: 8 Health Challenges Facing the World Today

Vaccinate yourself

Your immune system is built to keep a "memory" of previous infections, allowing for a quick reaction (in the form of particular antibodies, B cells, or T cells) if the pathogen ever reappears.

The same outcome can be achieved through vaccination, which exposes the body to a pathogen that has been rendered inert or dead so that the body can create the same protective cells.

By receiving the necessary vaccinations, you can prevent disease and infection in both yourself and others around you. Vaccinations and booster doses for adults, including the yearly flu shot, are listed here along with a recommended schedule for kids.

Put on a face mask

With the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, face masks entered into people's daily lives.

Face masks assist you in avoiding infectious respiratory diseases and, in the event that you do contract one, in stopping your spread to others. Therefore, when you have respiratory problems and can't isolate, you should always follow the habit of wearing a face mask.

How to pick and choose the Right Face Mask

The CDC advises you to locate a face mask that:

  • Have two or more layers of cloth that can be washed and breathed
  • Covers your lips & nose entirely.
  • Any gaps fit tightly against the sides of your face.

Use food safety methods

The causes of food-borne diseases are numerous. Included in this is gastroenteritis, a viral disease primarily spread by contaminated food or water and frequently referred to as the "stomach flu."10 This also applies to food poisoning, which may be brought on by any of the more than 250 contaminating agents (bacteria, viruses, parasites, poisons, and chemicals).

All types of food, especially those that are left at room temperature, are a prime source of microbes. After food is prepared, most bacteria may typically be stopped or slowed down by prompt cooling within two hours.

Furthermore, you may avoid cross-contamination by using separate cutting boards for produce and uncooked meat. Wash your hands frequently, keep your counters spotless, and wash any fresh produce you intend to eat before you consume it.

ALSO READ: Causes of Malnutrition in Nigeria

You may need to take additional precautions, such as boiling meat to a very high temperature and peeling or scraping all fruits and vegetables, if you have an impaired immune system (have a decreased capacity to fight illnesses). The elderly, young children, and pregnant women, who are more vulnerable to the negative effects of food poisoning, should take extra care.

Travel Safe guide

Traveling is a great way to contract infectious diseases, especially when visiting places with few resources.

You can take the following actions to lower your risk:

  • Watch out for water: Use bottled water to consume and brush your teeth if the quality of the water at your destination is uncertain. Ice cubes should also be avoided since they could be contaminated.
  • Steer clear of raw or undercooked poultry, fish, or meat: Eat these dishes only if they are completely cooked.
  • Sae preparation of fruits and vegetables: When selecting fruit to eat, ensure sure it can be peeled and that the skin does not come into contact with the fruit's interior while peeling.

Lastly, be sure you have received all vaccines that have been suggested or indicated for travelers to your locations. Visit the Travelers' Health section of the CDC's website to see references to these.

The CDC's website also provides up-to-date travel alerts concerning outbreaks and other health issues (domestic and abroad), as well as warnings about food-borne infection epidemics.

Before going, discuss your immunocompromised state with your healthcare provider as some immunizations, such as the yellow fever vaccine, may not be suitable for you.

ALSO, READ: Here’s why 7 in 10 Africans suffers tooth decay: Health Life Kit

Use responsible sexual behavior

In many cases, sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) can be avoided by continuously using condoms and reducing the number of sex partners. This can lower your risk of getting sick and contaminating other people.

Some viral infections, notably those brought on by sexual contacts, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), are linked to cancer.

besides adhering to these safer sex behaviors, there is a medication therapy called pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) that can lower your chance of contracting HIV by about 90% if you are at high risk of HIV exposure.

Avoid Animal-Borne Diseases that occur

Unbeknownst to some, zoonotic diseases—infections that can transfer from animals to people—are more frequent than you might think. Make sure your pets have routine exams and have all necessary immunizations.

Keep young children away from animal waste and clean litter boxes periodically. Cat feces are frequently the source of toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus (CMV), therefore if you are expecting or immunocompromised, have someone else take care of the litter box.

Additionally dangerous are wild animals, which can spread diseases like Lyme disease, rabies, and avian flu. Create a hostile environment for rodents in your home by getting rid of places where they could hide or construct nests in order to better avoid this.

Be Careful in Hospitals

Nosocomial infections, also referred to as hospital-acquired infections, are a significant global and national source of disease and mortality.

 Hospitals can become breeding grounds for infections, including the difficult-to-treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), since they host patients with a variety of illnesses and infections.

Teach young children that wild animals should never be approached or touched, and use animal-proof trash cans to prevent attracting wildlife.

Tips for Hospital Safety

To lessen your chances of acquiring illnesses while hospitalized:

  • To identify institutions with the highest standards for cleanliness and safety, consult hospital rating websites (like the Leapfrog Hospital Survey).
  • Try to get a private room if you can.
  • Bring antiseptic wipes or hand soap, or request some from the hospital.
  • If you are in a semi-private room or ward, bring a germ-filtering mask.
  • Avoid wearing bare feet in hospitals.

These precautions ought to be used in outpatient facilities as well, especially if you might be immunosuppressed. This covers both chemotherapy infusion clinics (where you receive cancer treatment) and dialysis clinics (a facility that helps remove waste materials and fluids from your blood to support your kidneys).


Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, which includes eating a balanced diet, exercising frequently, and practicing stress management, is another approach to ward off infection. Your immune system may be better able to protect against some minor community-wide diseases with this in place.

Keep an eye on your health.

To help you become the healthiest and fittest version of yourself, please carefully read our instructions. To help you improve your overall health, we provide current, fact-based analysis. On a variety of health-related topics, training materials are being created by a group of industry experts. We've worked very hard to educate you so that you can have the most fulfilling life possible. The news headlines aren't the only source of information regarding good sleeping practices.



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