8 Health Challenges Facing The World Today


Health difficulties are becoming more public than ever in the world today. This perhaps has to do with both growth in medical science, because of which it has been relaxed to diagnose health problems, and also people’s lifestyle, which is becoming progressively unhealthy.
The main causes for are unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, environmental poverty, high stress levels and inheritances. While in the past, infectious ailments were the major issues, non-communicable diseases are the main issues today.
Below, we deliberate the most prevalent health issues in the world today along with their warning sign, causes and preventive procedures.
1. Cancer
Cancer remains one of the key health concerns of the 21st century. Its incidence has been increasing with transformation and advancement perhaps due to environmental worsening and increased exposure to chemicals and radioactivity.
While there’s no specific cause of cancer, various risk factors donate to the genesis of particular kinds of cancer. Tobacco and smoking, obesity, alcoholism, too much sun exposure and radiation are among the common risk factors, while genetics also theaters a pivotal role with improved risk among siblings and relations.
Several infections like Hepatitis B virus and Human Papilloma virus are also among the ancestors of cancer. Prostate cancer and breast cancer are the most mutual cancers in males and females separately.
Although a number of anticancer drugs, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgical procedure are used in treating cancer, whole treatment is still far off for many neoplasms. Hence, initial detection of cancer is vital.
Systematic screening for cancer, lifestyle modifications like regular exercise, healthy diet, leaving smoking and tobacco are the defensive measures.
2. Diabetes
Diabetes is a chronic disorder associated with unusually high blood glucose levels: fasting blood sugar level greater than 110 mg/dl, random blood glucose level better than 200 mg/dl.
Blood glucose level is upheld in normal range of 70-110 mg/dl by insulin, a hormone secreted by β cells of pancreas. Any abnormality that causes injury of β cells, and thus slight or no insulin, contributes to pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes usually seen in children and youth. Though results when body cells become resistant to action of insulin and it normally affects older people.
Diabetes leads to many acute and chronic problems affecting almost all parts of the body – brain (stroke, cognitive impairment), eye (retinopathy, glaucoma), heart (heart attack, congestive heart failure), nerves (peripheral neuropathy), ear (hearing damage), and skin (enlarged risk of infections). It thus remnants one of the most debilitating diseases.
Precautionary measures include lifestyle modifications like steady exercise, inclusion of fiber-rich whole grains, nuts, vegetables and fruits in diet, upholding normal weight and regular examination.
Handling regimen for type 1 and type 2 diabetes differ in that type 1 diabetes dealing includes insulin while type 2 diabetes are treated by sulfonylureas (glibenclamide, glipizide), meglitinides (repaglinide), biguanides (metformin), thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone).

3. Heart diseases
Heart illnesses like myocardial infarction, angina, and heart failure have been related with a high fatality rate, killing more people than all forms of cancer joint in the United States.
Smoking, high-fat diet, lack of exercise and sedentary lifestyle are the common causes, while other body situations add fuel to the fire aggravating the disease. Atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension and contagions are common culprits.
Henceforth, preventive measures like placing an end to smoking, minimizing salt intake, regular physical exercise, overwhelming a diet low in fat and having regular health checkups will do a lot in plummeting your risk for heart diseases.
4. Kidney disease
Renal catastrophe remains one of the main global medical concerns. Kidney disease is measured by measurement of GFR, which is the ability of kidneys to filter blood. Normal value of GFR is 125ml/min and by meaning decrease in GFR is kidney disappointment.
Causes of acute kidney injury include pre-renal causes like dehydration, blood loss and shock; renal causes include infections of kidney; obstruction to urine movement falls under post-renal reasons.
When kidneys don’t purpose for more than 3 months, it’s called chronic kidney disease, unlike acute kidney injury which is severe in onset. Symptoms include summary urine volume, nausea, loss of appetite, muscle cramps, etc.
Guidelines for kidney disease deterrence include reduced protein intake, salt control, adequate fluid intake, cessation of smoking and upholding normal body weight. Additions like to really help in weight loss. Since kidney failure is mostly produced by diabetes and hypertension, behavior strategies include control of blood glucose level and blood pressure by necessary hypoglycemic and anti-hypertensive drugs. Kidney relocate is reserved for serious cases.
5. Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer’s disease affects mental function of the brain, and is more common in females than in males. In males, another brain disease—Parkinson disease—is more shared.
While the exact cause of Alzheimer disease vestiges unknown, its widely known that advancing age and family history are common risk factors along with obesity, hypertension and Down syndrome amid others.
Pathophysiology involves accretion of senile plaques or beta-amyloid plaques and development of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) ultimately leading to loss of neurons and synapses necessary for cognitive meanings of the body.
Behavior therapy includes only symptomatic therapies–cholinesterase inhibitors. Drugs are used according to symptoms, like antidepressants for unhappiness and for agitation, sleep disorders, etc. Routine physical exercise will have effect on disease development as increased cardiorespiratory fitness has been shown to slow disease evolution.
6. Influenza
While  fighting influenza on his/her own, immune cooperated people, especially children, old, expectant women, and people with conditions like diabetes and hypertension are at increased risk of emerging potentially fatal pneumonia
Increased incidence and death toll due to swine flu (H1N1 virus) led the WHO to declare the first flu pandemic in 41 years on June 11, 2009. It affected all continents except Antarctica in 2009-2010 season and has been regular problem since then, though luckily mortality rate has been similar to usual flu.
With complications like pneumonia, influenza poses a serious threat especially to above mentioned risk groups. Preemptive vaccination is the most effective way to prevent disease while regular washing of hands, preventing unnecessary touching of nose and mouth and wearing masks are also to be followed.
Two antiviral agents, Zanamavir and Oseltamavir, are effective drugs to reduce the effects of swine flu, with newer drugs under study. There is evidence, however, of drug resistance due to excessive and indiscriminate use. Hence, necessary precautions and prevention are the most efficient way to save oneself from falling victim to the influenza virus.

7. Stroke
Stroke or cerebrovascular accident is a disorder potentially caused when blood supply to brain is interrupted thus leading to death of brain cells. It may be triggered by ischemia– due to blocked artery—or it can be hemorrhagic—due to bursting of family vessel.
Risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension and diabetes, while genetics also plays a role. Since it can lead to a number of problems like paralysis of contralateral sides of the body, loss of cognitive occupation, emotional problems and abnormal behaviors, and also due to the fact that management for any disease of the brain is complicated, one ought to have adequate knowledge about stroke, about its risk factors in general and everyone should grow healthy lifestyle.
8. AIDS
AIDS, having originated from monkeys, is already a global pandemic. About 37 million people are living with HIV AIDS with 17 million uninformed of the fact they have the worm in their body. Sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected region with 25.8 million victims there, with significant number of them being children due to mother-to-child broadcast either during pregnancy, childbirth or breastfeeding.
Transmitted through body fluids–blood, semen, breast milk, vaginal fluid, rectal fluids—it can be prevented if program of fluids can be avoided. Hence, safe blood transfusion, safe sex, limiting the number of sexual partners, getting tested and treated for other STDs are the effective preventive measures.
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) helps HIV infected people to minimalize virus load and stop progression of disease thus, reducing risk of spread to other people as well. Antiretroviral therapy is provided  to minimize risk of broadcast to child while new born child should also receive the treatment for 6 weeks. As a post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), it is also used in cases possibly uncovered to HIV as in breakage of barrier throughout sex, exposure to virus in health workers, 

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