Women health

 HIV-resistant blood type

By Faculty of Medicine University Oslo: HIV can infect some people but not others. You may be safeguarded if you have a gene deficiency.

To enter the body, the HIV virus requires two entry locations. The virus cannot enter if one path is blocked. One access point will be blocked through gene editing, making it possible to eradicate the HIV virus.

1. The good defect

Research on HIV is being done by Professor Dag Kvale at the Institute of Clinical Medicine.

"How HIV is transmitted has long been a mystery," he asserts.

For a long time, scientists assumed that the virus's ability to attach to a certain cell type with the CD4 receptor accounted for the phenomenon. But it's not quite that easy to explain. In actuality, not everyone may contract HIV.

It is true that the CD4 receptor in cells serves as a point of contact for the HIV virus. Our immune system's generals, these receptors direct all immunological responses in the event of an external attack. They were first identified as the HIV virus's entry site in 1984.

It took scientists twelve years to realize that the virus need an extra receptor in order to enter a CD4 target cell and infect it. You won't get HIV-positive if this target cell is not functional.

ALSO READHow Do You Know If A Man Has HIV Positive? The Sign And Symptoms

2. The disease is prevented by a defective gene.

Living a totally normal life despite having a gene deficiency in the co-receptor for HIV is possible for some individuals. Most likely, residents of Northern Europe are affected by this gene deficiency.

The body can function without the CCR5 receptor, says Kvale, "just like the Norwegian army does just fine even though a little handgun goes missing."

In an ironic twist, the faulty gene shields you from HIV infection rather than making you sick.

The CCR5 gene is inactive, thus the HIV virus cannot attach to it. And it's possible that this is where the solution to defeating the infection is concealed. Researchers may be able to completely eradicate the virus by genetically altering this gene in HIV patients to make it dysfunctional.

Every gene has two copies, according to Kvale, who adds that HIV is not transmitted to individuals who have co-receptor errors in both genes. HIV infections spread much more slowly and are contracted by people who have one healthy gene and one faulty gene.

3. The virus that fled

The aim is to discover a treatment for HIV. And, according to Kvale, this is no longer a pipe fantasy.

One approach involves genetically altering stem cells in the bone marrow of an HIV-positive person such that they develop the gene deficiency that confers immunity to HIV.

The "Berlin patient" case is an anomaly in HIV research. This relates to an HIV patient who was able to completely eradicate the virus. In addition to having leukemia, the patient was HIV positive. He got a bone marrow transplant as part of his chemotherapy for cancer.

He underwent extensive cytostatic medication and radiation therapy to eradicate the cancer cells before receiving bone marrow from a healthy donor.

The donor was one of the few individuals who had the above-mentioned co-receptor with a damaged CCR5 gene. After transplanting the patient's healthy bone marrow containing the faulty gene, the medical team stopped providing him HIV treatment.

And the outcome? The HIV infection vanished.

ALSO, READ: How Do You Know If a Female Has HIV SYMPTOMS?

4. The secret of the intestine

Despite the fact that HIV infections are controlled by modern medications, HIV patients tend to develop several inflammatory disorders more frequently than average.

According to Kvale, patients experience cardiovascular issues, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, high blood pressure, and osteoporosis more frequently than the general population does on average.

The intestine, the body's largest immunological organ, likely holds the key to the puzzle. A vast majority of immune cells are hidden within our ten-meter-long digestive tube. Huge numbers of CD4 cells in the gut are killed in the first few weeks after contracting HIV.

The substantial loss of CD4 cells that occurs at an early stage was unknown to us until recent years, according to Kvale.

5. The immune system is worn out by an intestinal leak.

For a number of patients, this loss has an impact on how the disease progresses in the future. It gets easier for leakage to occur since there are only a few cells separating the gut contents from the body. As a result, a lot of patients complain about inflammatory material leakage. 

Some bacteria are especially powerful in this regard, according to researchers. The arteriosclerosis is accelerated by the persistent leaking because it makes the blood vessel inflammation worse. The immune system also loses strength. Similar to a fire alarm that goes off constantly, the same bacterial components trigger the immune system's response.

The immune system is designed for sprinting; it is not a long-distance runner. The immune system becomes worn out when alarms are set off due of intestinal leakage. According to Kvale, this significantly aids in the development of immune system failure in HIV infection.

With more knowledge of these mechanisms, patients who experience significant gastrointestinal leakage may eventually be provided novel forms of treatment that could be beneficial in the long run.

6. The death penalty should be lifted

However, let's travel back 30 years. prior to these drugs. prior to treatment. Ahead of hope. Back then, contracting HIV was akin to receiving a protracted death sentence.

There was a lot of anxiety and little knowledge at the time. At the time, researchers offered a grim picture of the situation. Some epidemiologists predicted an epidemic with a high infection rate—a nightmare scenario in which 20% or more of the population would test positive for HIV.

A person with HIV had just around ten years left in them before they passed away. Our region of the planet is currently facing very different circumstances. This is the result of rigorous work in the lab and behind the microscope.

Most infected people had no chance of surviving the HIV infection prior to 1996. Then a cure appeared, and it was effective. Not a miraculous treatment that eradicated the virus, but one that stopped it from multiplying and infecting fresh cells. We're taking back control, too. As long as persons with HIV are receiving good treatment, medication aids in preventing HIV transmission to others.

ALSO READ: Can HIV Be Transmitted Through Foods?

7. The most essential test

The field of HIV research has advanced significantly. The virus is under medical control, and its spread is prevented. At around 97%, today's therapy effectiveness is among the highest in the world.

Unfortunately, the situation differs in the world's poorer regions. There are still stigmatizing prejudices and a death sentence associated with HIV.

 In the wealthy region of the world, a virus-based illness that was once lethal is now controlled by medications. But now that we can cure the infection and stop the transmission of the disease, testing for HIV is more crucial than ever before, says Kvale.


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