Women health

 A hereditary eye disease that causes blindness

There are countless different eye conditions and eyesight issues. Many illnesses are treatable, while some have no known cure. By leading a healthy lifestyle, visiting an eye care specialist frequently, and each time your vision changes, you may help to maintain your own eye health.

How widespread are disorders and diseases of the eyes?

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 3.4 million Americans aged 40 and older meet the criteria for "legal blindness" (visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better-seeing eye or a visual field of 20 degrees or less) or have corrected vision (visual acuity of 20/40 or less). Nearly 7% of American children under the age of 18 have an eye disorder or disease that has been identified. Almost 3% of youngsters under the age of 18 have vision problems or are blind.

Vision loss is one of the most prevalent disabilities in children and one of the top 10 causes of impairment in adults over the age of 18 in the United States.

The fact of the matter is that it's never too late to begin caring for your eye health. Early diagnosis is possible with routine eye exams and visits for eye health. To stop or slow down the majority of eye diseases, this is essential. If your vision problem persists for more than a few days or gets worse, you should always visit an eye care specialist.

Which diseases affect the eyes most often?

The four most frequent eye conditions that result in vision loss or blindness are:

  1. Cataracts.
  2. retinopathy caused by diabetes.
  3. Glaucoma.
  4. age-related macular deterioration

There are, however, a huge variety of eye problems and diseases.

How does macular degeneration occur?

The eye condition macular degeneration, commonly known as age-related macular degeneration or AMD, damages your central vision. The macula, the portion of your retina in the middle that lets you to see small details, is harmed by it. It is the primary cause of visual loss in adults over 60.

There are two types of macular degeneration: moist and dry. When unnatural blood vessels develop under the macula and begin to leak blood and fluid, wet AMD results. The macula is harmed, and central vision is lost as a result. The macula thins as a result of dry AMD, gradually causing blurring of your central vision. Between 70% and 90% of cases of AMD are dry, which is more common than the wet variety.

AMD symptoms, which ordinarily aren't seen until the condition has advanced, consist of:

  1. blurry vision in the center.
  2. In the middle of your range of vision, there are black or dark spots.
  3. Straight lines have a wavy or curved look.

Despite the lack of a cure, treatment can halt the spread of the illness or stop serious visual loss. Utilizing intraocular injections of anti-VEGF drugs, recent advancements in the treatment of wet AMD have been made.

How do cataracts occur?

The lens of your eye becomes clouded due to a cataract. In one or both eyes, this foggy lens may form. The primary factor in blindness worldwide is cataracts. The primary reason for irreversible vision loss in the US is cataracts. Even at birth, cataracts can develop, but those over the age of 50 are more likely to develop them.

Cataract symptoms include:

  1. blurry/cloudy vision.
  2. glare from nighttime lighting.
  3. inability to see at night.
  4. sensitivity to strong illumination
  5. Bright light is required for reading.
  6. modifications to how you perceive color.
  7. frequent modifications to your prescription for glasses.

More than 90% of patients report seeing better after having their hazy lens surgically removed and replaced with an artificial lens, demonstrating the high success rate of the procedure.

What exactly is diabetic retinopathy?

Retinopathy brought on by diabetes is a common side effect of the disease. It is one of the main causes of adult blindness in the United States.

In diabetes-related retinopathy, uncontrolled, long-term high blood sugar (glucose) levels cause persistent damage to the retina's blood vessels. Clear eyesight depends on the retina, the light-sensitive tissue in your eye. Most diabetics with retinopathy do not experience changes in vision until the condition is advanced. In some people, symptoms ebb and flow.

These signs include:

  1. hazy or misaligned vision
  2. new color blindness or the perception of faded colors.
  3. poor vision at night.
  4. little streaks or black blotches in your field of vision.
  5. difficulty reading or perceiving distant objects.

Treatment options include surgery to treat the mending or contracting of blood vessels in the retina as well as injections of a particular type of medicine.

What exactly is glaucoma?

Higher-than-normal fluid pressure in the eye is the cause of the eye condition glaucoma. The optic nerve is damaged by pressure, which alters how visual information is conveyed to the brain. Blindness in one or both eyes is a possibility if glaucoma is left undiagnosed and untreated. Many families have a history of glaucoma.

Glaucoma comes in two different major forms. You might not notice a change in your vision until open-angle glaucoma is advanced because the condition progresses slowly over time. Suddenly developing closed-angle glaucoma is possible. In addition to being painful, it quickly results in vision loss.

Some of the signs are:

  1. or pressure in the eyes.
  2. Headaches.
  3. red eyes
  4. lights with haloes of rainbow colors.
  5. visual problems such as tunnel vision, hazy vision, and blind patches.
  6. sickness and vomiting

The goal of treatments, which also include laser therapy and surgery, is to lower eye pressure.

What causes the retina to detach?

The term "retinal detachment" refers to the separation or detachment of the retina from the tissues that support it in your eye. If untreated, this is a dangerous eye disorder that can cause blindness.

Depending on the degree of the detachment, you may or may not exhibit symptoms. Here are several signs:

  1. I can see lightning flashes.
  2. seeing squiggly lines or dark patches drift across your field of vision.
  3. the view that is somewhat obscured or covered, especially on the side.

The retina can be reattached using laser therapy or a variety of surgical techniques that seal or heal retinal tears.

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What are the most typical conditions affecting children's eyes?

The following eye disorders are frequently encountered in children:

  1. Amblyopia: Amblyopia, often known as "lazy eye," occurs when your child's brain and one eye don't function properly and the brain favors the other eye that has better vision. In the less-favored eye, their eyesight will be lessened. This is the most frequent reason for vision impairment in kids.
  2. If your child has strabismus, their eyes will cross or turn out due to a lack of ocular coordination. Your child's eyes do not lock onto a single object simultaneously. This could result in diminished 3D vision or perhaps the brain favoring one eye over the other, which would impair vision in the non-favored eye (amblyopia, see above).
  3. Conjunctivitis: Conjunctivitis, sometimes referred to as pink eye, is an inflammation of the transparent tissue that covers the outside of your eye and the inside surface of your eyelid. Conjunctiva is the name of this tissue. It keeps the eyelid and eyeball moisturized. Particularly among children, pink eye can be quite contagious. Despite not impairing vision, it produces itchiness, redness, blurriness, tears, and discharge.

What are refractive eye disorders?

You have difficulty focusing if you have refractive eye conditions. Your cornea and lens cause light to be bent in an unnatural way. In the United States, these refractive defects are the most prevalent eye conditions. Myopia, hyperopia, and distorted vision at all distances are all examples of refractive defects (astigmatism). With the use of contacts, glasses, or surgery, several eye problems can be treated.

What really is presbyopia?

Presbyopia is the difficulty to focus on a wide field of vision. Farsightedness and it are not the same things, despite frequent confusion. With aging, the lens naturally becomes less flexible, which is known as presbyopia. Due to an abnormally short eye shape called farsightedness, light enters the eye and then bends improperly. Corrective lenses (sometimes referred to as "cheaper" glasses) are used to treat presbyopia.

What do eye floaters mean?

Eye floaters are deposits or clumps that float in the vitreous fluid of your eye (the clear, jelly-like substance in the middle of your eye). Floaters are dots or specks that move through your range of view. Even though they are typically unimportant, if they suddenly occur and are accompanied by other symptoms like flashes of light or a partial loss of side vision, they may indicate a more serious eye issue like a detached retina.

What exactly constitutes dry eye?

When your tear glands are unable to effectively lubricate the surface of your eyes with tears or generate tears of poor quality, dry eye develops. Artificial tears and tear duct plugs are available as treatments to stop tear drainage.

Why do eyes start to tear?

When tears are produced by the eyes in excess of what can be absorbed, eye tearing occurs. This could be from sensitivity to weather factors including wind, sun, and temperature fluctuations, from an eye infection, or it might be the result of a blocked tear duct.

Can eye diseases be passed down through families?

Yes, hereditary factors can play a part in a variety of eye conditions, some of which are major contributors to blindness in children, adults, and infants. Inherited eye illnesses, such as:

  1. cataracts from birth.
  2. Congenital glaucoma
  3. retinal aging.
  4. Optical atrophy
  5. deformities of the eyes.

Additionally, there is compelling evidence to support the hereditary component of strabismus (ocular misalignment). Approximately one-third of cases have a family history. Glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration appear to be inherited in the majority of instances in adulthood. Retinitis pigmentosa, a retinal degenerative disease that causes night blindness and gradual vision loss, has been linked to specific genes, and research into these genes has advanced significantly. In more recent times, gene therapy has been utilized to cure retinitis pigmentosa that first manifests in childhood.

What common vision diseases are inherited?

There is no proof that some of the most prevalent eye issues in both children and adults are genetically predisposed. These eye issues include:

  1. Strabismus (cross-eyes) (cross-eyes).
  2. Refractive flaws such as astigmatism, farsightedness, and nearsightedness.
  3. retinal aging.
  4. Glaucoma.

What can I do to maintain the best possible health of my eyes?


You have a variety of options for protecting your vision. Some recommendations are:

Even if you don't notice any changes in your eyesight, you should still visit your eye doctor on a regular basis. Some eye conditions don't have any early symptoms. Ask your eye care provider how frequently you should be examined.

Be aware of your eye disease risk factors. Some of these include your age, family history of eye disorders, ethnic background, or having additional health issues like diabetes or high blood pressure.

Choose a healthy lifestyle. Your chance of eye disorders or vision issues will be reduced by maintaining a healthy physique. Healthy decisions include keeping a healthy weight, eating well, exercising for at least 30 minutes a day most days of the week, and quitting smoking.

Eye safety is important. Wear sunglasses to shield your eyes from UVA and UVB rays, even on cloudy days. If you're working on a home or business project or playing a sport, make sure you have the right protective eyewear on. Observe wear-and-clean contact lens instructions. Avoid extended eye strain from using phones and computers. Once every 20 minutes, let your eyes rest and concentrate on far-off objects.


You can interact with your environment more easily if you have a strong vision. There are simple solutions for some visual issues. Certain illnesses are incurable. However, many eye problems can be repaired or the disease process slowed down if caught early and treated, which will lessen your risk of vision loss. Visit an eye doctor if you detect any changes in your eyesight. Having routine eye exams is crucial, even if you don't notice any changes in your vision. There are certain eyesight issues with no early warning symptoms. Your eye care specialist can carry out the required examinations, recommend eyeglasses, prescribe drugs, or perform surgery to slow or minimize vision loss and help you see your best.

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