Women health

 Hypertension headache

There are lots of different forms of headaches, each with a unique set of symptoms and causes. The majorities are transient and infrequency reasons for alarm. But knowing the type of headache one is having can help one decide how to cure it and whether to consult a doctor.

Nearly half of all adults, according to the World Health Organization (WHO)Trusted Source, will have suffered from at least one headache in the previous year.

While they can occasionally be unpleasant and incapacitating, the majority of them can be treated with straightforward painkillers and will disappear within a few hours. But recurrent bouts or specific sorts of headaches might point to a more serious medical condition.

Over 150 different forms of headaches are defined by the International Classification of Headache Disorders, which is further divided into primary and secondary headaches.

A primary headache is caused by the ailment itself, not by another illness. Examples include tension headaches and migraines. A primary headache, in contrast, has a unique underlying cause, such as a head injury or abrupt caffeine withdrawal.

This article examines some of the most typical headache types, their origins, treatments, and recommendations for when to see a doctor.

1. Migraine

Severe throbbing pain on one side of the head is a common symptom of a migraine headache.

A person's sensitivity to light, sound, and scent may be increased. Additionally typical are nausea and vomiting.

In about 25% of migraine sufferers, the headache begins with an aura. These are visual and sensory disturbances, which typically last between 5 and 60 minutes:

  • Observing zigzags, flashing lights, or spots
  • Eyesight loss to some extent
  • Numbness
  • Tingling
  • Muscular trembling
  • Finding words or speaking difficult

Be mindful that signs of an aura could potentially point to meningitis or stroke. Anyone encountering them for the first time needs to get help right once.

Every incidence of a migraine headache can last anywhere from a few hours to many days, and they frequently come again. It is a lifelong condition for many people.

The causes of migraines are not entirely understood by medical professionals. But it frequently runs in families, affecting people with specific pre-existing disorders more frequently, such as depression and epilepsy.

  • Stress & Anxiety
  • Sleep disruption
  • Hormonal changes
  • Skipping meals
  • Dehydration
  • Certain foods & medications
  • Perky lights & loud noise

Migraines might be taken on by:


The severity of the symptoms, how frequently they occur, and whether the patient has nausea and vomiting will all influence the course of treatment.

Treatment options available include:

  • NSAIDs, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines, include ibuprofen, naproxen, aspirin, or acetaminophen.
  • Prescription-only triptans, like sumatriptan,
  • To treat nausea and vomiting, utilize antiemetics such as metoclopramide.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and other neurostimulation methods might also be beneficial.

A person can lessen attacks by doing the following:

  • Lying down in a silent, dark environment
  • Applying a cool cloth or an ice pack to the forehead

Patients with chronic migraines should discuss preventive care with their physicians. If a person experiences an attack on more than 15 days in a given month or if symptoms appear for at least 8 days per month for three months, a medical professional may make the diagnosis of chronic migraine.

For treating migraines, there are several drug options:

  • topiramate (Topamax)
  • Propranolol
  • Amitriptyline

Dietary adjustments, stress reduction techniques, and acupuncture are additional management options to think about.

2. A headache of tension

Most people eventually have tension-type headaches. On both sides of the head, they feel bored and unchanging. Additional signs could be:

  • Sensitivity in the shoulders, neck, head, and face
  • A pressing sensation behind the eyes
  • Light and sound sensitivity
  • From thirty minutes to several hours, these headaches may last.

Although the exact etiology of tension headaches is unknown, stress, anxiety, and sadness are common triggers. Other potential triggers include:

  • Dehydration
  • Loud noise
  • Absence of exercise
  • Inadequate quality sleep
  • Posture
  • Avoided meals
  • Eye strain


Pain relief using over-the-counter (OTC) medications including ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and aspirin is typically extremely effective. People who have headaches more than 15 days a month for 90 days should see a doctor.

Tension headaches may be avoided with certain lifestyle modifications and therapies. These may consist of:

  • Getting an adequate amount of sleep
  • Steady exercise and stretching
  • Improving sitting & standing position
  • Having an eye test
  • Management of stress, anxiety, or depression
  • Acupuncture

3. Cluster headache

Cluster headaches are painful and frequent headaches. Males are six times more likely than females to be affected by them. People often describe a sharp, stabbing pain behind or around one eye.

Other signs could be:

  • Watering eyes
  • Swollen eyelid
  • A blocked or a runny nose
  • Sensitivity to light & sound
  • Restiveness or agitation

Cluster headaches typically last between 15 minutes and 3 hours and start quickly and without notice. A person may have up to 8 assaults each day.

These assaults can last for weeks or months and typically happen in daily bunches. They frequently begin a few hours after going to sleep at night and at regular intervals.

Anyone exhibiting these signs, which occasionally resemble hay fever, should see a doctor.

Cluster headaches are more common in smokers, but their exact etiology is unknown. Alcohol should be avoided when under attack.


The goal of treatment is to lessen the intensity and frequency of attacks. Options consist of:

  • Oxygen remedy
  • Sumatriptan
  • verapamil
  • Steroids
  • Melatonin
  • Lithium

The treatment of cluster headaches that do not respond to medicine may also benefit from deep brain stimulation and vagus nerve stimulation.

4. Headache from exertion

Exertional headaches result from strenuous physical activity and have the following causes:

  • Running
  • Jumping
  • Weight lifting
  • Sexual intercourse
  •  Coughing or sneezing

Usually just lasting a few hours, these headaches might occasionally continue for two days. They are more common in people with a family history of migraine and present as throbbing pains throughout the head.

Cluster headaches should be taken seriously and should be discussed with a doctor by anyone experiencing them for the first time.


The following methods can be used as exertional headache treatment:

  • OTC pain relief
  • Beta-blockers, such as propranolol
  • Indomethacin

Exertion headaches might occasionally be the outcome of cardiovascular issues. If so, a physician might advise tests to examine a patient's cerebrovascular and cardiovascular health.

5. Hypnic headaches

A hypnic headache is a rare ailment that commonly manifests in people's 50s, however, it can appear earlier. These headaches, which some people refer to as "alarm clock headaches," cause people to wake up at night.

Mild to severe throbbing pain, typically on both sides of the head, is the hallmark of a hypnic headache. Other symptoms may include nausea and sensitivity to light and sound, and it can continue for up to three hours.

Each week, there may be multiple attacks on a person. There are no recognized triggers for hypnic headaches, and their cause is unclear.

Hypnic headaches aren't harmful, but an older adult who has any strange headaches for the first time needs to consult a doctor. A physician might want to exclude migraine and cluster headaches.


There are several ways to treat hypnic headaches:

  • Caffeine
  • Indomethacin
  • Lithium

6. Headache by excessive medication use

The most typical form of secondary headache is a medication-overuse headache (MOH), also referred to as a rebound headache. A MOH is characterized by recurrent or everyday headaches with symptoms resembling tension headaches or migraines.

Painkillers first help these headaches, but then they come back after a while.

If a patient has a headache issue and has taken painkillers at least 15 days a month, a doctor may diagnose MOH.

Medicines that can result in MOH include:

  • Opioids
  • Acetaminophen
  • Triptans, such as sumatriptan
  • NSAIDs, such as aspirin & ibuprofen

Even when taking these drugs, a MOH can still happen. A MOH, however, seems to mostly appear in individuals taking painkillers specifically to treat a headache.


The only way to treat MOH is to stop taking the medicine that's giving you headaches. Anybody should, however, only cease taking medication under a doctor's guidance. The doctor may provide alternate medications to aid the withdrawal process in addition to offering planning assistance.

A person may have the following symptoms after discontinuing the drug:

  • Worsened headaches
  • Nausea & vomiting
  • Increased heart rate
  • Low blood pressure
  • Sleep disorder
  • Restiveness, anxiety, & nervousness

Antiemetics, for example, may be prescribed by a doctor to assist manage these symptoms of nausea and vomiting. Usually, the symptoms continue for two to ten days. Trusted Sources, however, can last up to 4 weeks.

Following the resolution of a MOH, a doctor will provide advice on the best painkillers to take.

The following actions can help in preventing MOH:

  • Avoid using opioids and codeine.
  • Reducing the number of painkillers taken for headaches
  • Using preventative medicine for a persistent migraine

7. Sinus headaches

Sinusitis, an infection of the sinuses, can cause headaches with a sinus component. Infections or allergies are the usual causes.

Around the eyes, cheeks, and forehead, there is a dull, throbbing agony. When you move or strain, the pain might get worse and occasionally spread to your teeth and jaw.

Other signs that could exist include the following:

  • Facial pressure or pain
  • Reduced sense of smell
  • Nasal discharge
  • A blocked nose
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Ear pain
  • Bad breath
  • Cough
  • Dental pain
  • A general feeling of being unwell

Sinus headaches are rather uncommon. A headache of this sort is more likely to be a migraine attack if there are no nasal symptoms.


Numerous folks can get headaches. Taking OTC painkillers, such as NSAIDs, will frequently make them go away. However, headaches can occasionally be a sign of a medical problem.

All sorts of headaches, including those brought on by medication overuse, migraines, and cluster headaches, may benefit from professional treatment and even prescription medication.

Anyone who has ongoing headaches should consult a doctor for guidance as they occasionally signify an underlying disease.












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