Women health


Nearly one in every seven couples is infertile, meaning they haven't been able to conceive despite having had frequent, unprotected sexual contact for a year or longer. Male infertility plays at least a partial role in up to half of these couples.

Low sperm production, poor sperm function, or sperm delivery obstructions can all contribute to male infertility. Male infertility can be caused by illnesses, injuries, persistent health problems, lifestyle choices, and other factors.

The inability to conceive a child can be stressful and disappointing, but male infertility can be treated in a variety of ways.

The Symptoms     

The inability to conceive a child is the most common symptom of male infertility. There could be no other visible symptoms or indicators.

However, in certain situations, signs and symptoms are caused by an underlying problem such as a genetic ailment, hormonal imbalance, dilated veins around the testicle, or a condition that prevents sperm from passing through. You may notice the following signs and symptoms:

Sexual function issues, such as difficulties ejaculating or ejaculating little amounts of fluid, decreased sexual desire, or problems keeping an erection (erectile dysfunction)

1.     In the testicular area, there may be a pain, swelling, or a lump.

2.   Respiratory illnesses that recur

3.   Inability to detect odor

4.   Breast the growth that isn't normal (gynecomastia)

5.    Hair loss on the face or body, as well as other symptoms of chromosomal or hormonal abnormalities

6.   A sperm count that is lower than usual (fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen or a total sperm count of less than 39 million per ejaculate)

When should you see a doctor?

If you haven't been able to conceive after a year of regular, unprotected intercourse, or if you have any of the following symptoms, see a doctor:

1.     Problems with erection or ejaculation, low sex drive, or other sexual function issues

2.   In the testicular area, there may be pain, discomfort, a lump, or swelling.

3.   Testicular, prostate, or sexual disorders in the past

4.   Surgery on the groin, testicles, penis, or scrotum

5.    An a companion who is over 35 years old

The Causes                         

Fertility in man is a complicated process. The following events must occur in order for your spouse to become pregnant:

Healthy sperm must be produced.

This begins with the development and enlargement of the male reproductive organs during puberty. To trigger and maintain sperm production, at least one of your testicles must be working properly, and your body must create testosterone and other substances.

Sperm must be transported into the sperm.

When sperm are created in the testicles, they are transported through delicate tubes until they mingle with semen and are ejected from the penis.

A sufficient amount of sperm must be present in the sperm.

If your sperm count (the quantity of sperm in your sperm) is low, the chances of one of your sperm fertilizing your partner's egg are slim. A sperm count of less than 15 million per milliliter of sperm or less than 39 million per ejaculate is considered poor.

Sperm must be able to migrate and be functional.

Your sperm may not be able to reach or penetrate your partner's egg if the movement (motility) or function of your sperm is abnormal.

Medical reasons      

Male fertility troubles can be caused by a variety of medical conditions and therapies, including:


A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins draining the testis? It's the most common cause of male infertility that can be reversed. Although the actual cause of infertility caused by varicoceles is unknown, it is thought to be connected to irregular blood flow. Varicoceles cause sperm quantity and quality to be lowered.


Some illnesses can affect sperm production or health, or induce scarring that prevents sperm from passing through. Some sexually transmitted illnesses, such as gonorrhea or HIV, cause inflammation of the epididymis (epididymitis) or testicles (orchitis). Despite the fact that some infections might result in irreversible testicular damage, sperm can usually be recovered.

Problems with ejaculation

During climax, semen enters the bladder instead of exiting out the tip of the penis, resulting in retrograde ejaculation. Diabetes, spinal injuries, drugs, and bladder, prostate, or urethra surgery are all examples of health issues that might cause retrograde ejaculation.

Antibodies that attack sperm

Anti-sperm antibodies are immune system cells that misinterpret sperm for hazardous invaders and try to destroy them.


Male reproductive organs can be affected directly by cancers and nonmalignant tumors, or indirectly through glands that release hormones associated to reproduction, such as the pituitary gland. Male fertility can be affected by surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy used to treat malignancies in some situations.

Testicles that haven't descended

One or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the sac that normally holds the testicles in some males during fetal development (scrotum). Men who have experienced this disorder are more likely to have lower fertility.

Hormone imbalances are a common problem.

Infertility can be caused by problems with the testicles or by problems with other hormonal systems such as the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal issues can be caused by a variety of factors.

Tubule defects that carry sperm

Sperm is carried in a variety of tubes. They can be obstructed for a variety of reasons, including surgical accidental harm, past infections, trauma, or improper growth, such as in cystic fibrosis or other genetic disorders.

The testicle, the tubes that drain the testicle, the epididymis, the vas deferens, the ejaculatory ducts and the urethra can all become blocked.

Defects in the chromosomes

Boy reproductive organs develop abnormally in inherited illnesses such Klinefelter's syndrome, in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome (rather than one X and one Y). Cystic fibrosis and Kallmann's syndrome are two more genetic diseases linked to infertility.

Sexual intercourse difficulties

Erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, painful intercourse, anatomical abnormalities such as a urethral opening beneath the penis (hypospadias), or psychological or relational problems that interfere with sex are examples of these.

Celiac disease is a type of gluten intolerance

Celiac disease is a digestive ailment characterized by a sensitivity to gluten, a gluten-like protein present in wheat. Male infertility may be exacerbated by the disease. Adopting a gluten-free diet may help with fertility.

Medications in particular

Testosterone replacement therapy, long-term anabolic steroid use, cancer therapies (chemotherapy), some ulcer drugs, some arthritis drugs, and other pharmaceuticals can reduce male fertility.

Surgical procedures performed previously.

Ecological causes

Overexposure to certain environmental elements, such as heat, pollutants, and chemicals can cause sperm production and function to be reduced. The following are examples of specific causes:

Chemicals used in industry

Low sperm counts may be caused by prolonged exposure to certain chemicals, pesticides, herbicides, organic solvents, and painting materials.

Exposure to heavy metal

Infertility can also be caused by exposure to lead or other heavy metals.

X-rays or radiation

Radiation can impair sperm production, but it usually returns to normal after a while. Sperm production can be permanently impaired by strong amounts of radiation.

The testicles are overheated

Sperm production and function may be harmed by high temperatures. Although research on the subject is scarce and contradictory, frequent usage of saunas or hot tubs may temporarily reduce sperm count.

Sitting for lengthy amounts of time, wearing tight clothing, or working on a laptop computer for long lengths of time can all raise scrotal temperature and limit sperm production. However, the study isn't definitive.

Vasectomy, scrotal or testicular surgery, prostate surgery, and big abdominal procedures for testicular and prostate cancer may all prohibit you from having sperm in your ejaculate.

Causes include health, lifestyle, and other factors

Other factors that contribute to male infertility include:

The usage of drugs

Anabolic steroids, which are used to increase muscle strength and growth, can shrink the testicles and reduce sperm production. Cocaine or marijuana use might reduce the quantity and quality of your sperm for a short period of time.

Use of alcoholic beverages

Alcohol consumption lowers testosterone levels, causes erectile dysfunction, and reduces sperm production. Excessive drinking can induce liver damage, which can lead to fertility issues.

Tobacco consumption

Men who smoke may have a decreased sperm count than men who do not. Male fertility may also be harmed by secondhand smoke.


Obesity can affect male fertility in a variety of ways, including directly affecting sperm or generating hormone changes that lower male fertility.

Factors that are at risk

Male infertility is connected to a number of risk factors, including:

1.     Tobacco smoking

2.   Using alcoholic beverages

3.   Using some illegal substances

4.   Being overweight is a problem.

5.    Having had or currently having certain infections

6.   Having to deal with toxins

7.    Testicles that have been overheated

8.   Having been through a testicular trauma

9.   Having had a vasectomy or other major abdominal or pelvic surgery in the past

1Having a blood relative with a reproductive disease or being born with a fertility disorder

11.Having some medical issues, such as tumors or persistent disorders like sickle cell disease

  Taking some medications or receiving medical treatments for cancer, such as surgery or radiation

The Complications

Male infertility complications can include:

1.     The inability to have a kid causes stress and relationship problems

2.   Expensive and time-consuming reproductive methods

3.   Testicular cancer, melanoma, colon cancer and prostate cancer are all at a higher risk.

4.   Having a history of testicles that haven't descended


Infertility in men isn't always avoidable. You can, however, strive to prevent some of the most common causes of male infertility. Consider the following scenario:

Please don't smoke.

1.     Alcohol should be consumed in moderation or not at all.

2.   Stay away from illegal drugs.

3.   Maintain a healthy body mass index (BMI).

4.   A vasectomy is not a good idea.

5.    Things that cause the testicles to get hot for an extended period of time should be avoided.

6.   Reduce your stress levels.

7.     Pesticides, heavy metals and other poisons should be avoided.

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