Women health

 Most common disease in Nigeria

In a 2018 survey on global health access, Nigeria came in at number 142 out of 195 countries. Despite having a difficult healthcare system, Nigeria has made improvements to its infrastructure, which has helped it fight diseases like polio, measles, and Ebola. Nigeria currently has centralized offices known as Emergency Operation Centers (EOCs) that act as a foundation for government health personnel and assistance organizations to organize immunization efforts and collect data. Although there has been progressing, Nigeria is still plagued by numerous diseases.


A water-borne disease called cholera causes rapid-onset diarrhea as well as other signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, and weakness. It is one of the numerous illnesses that will affect Nigeria in 2021. Cholera patients could die from dehydration if they are not treated. Most infected individuals can benefit from replacing electrolytes and fluids with a straightforward oral rehydration solution (ORS). The ORS is offered as a powder that can be dissolved in either hot or cold water. Yet, without rehydration therapy, around 50% of people with cholera would perish; however, with rehydration therapy, the fatality rate drops to less than 1%.

In Nigeria, cholera cases started to increase in August 2021, mainly in the north, where the country's healthcare services are least prepared. The increase in instances is attributed to the rainy season, according to Dr. Bashir Lawan Muhammad, the state epidemiologist and deputy director of public health for Kano State. The north's jihadist insurgents have proved a problem for the police as well. Cholera may kill in a matter of hours if left untreated, and it is suspected in 22 of Nigeria's 36 states. Since March 2021, 186 persons from Kano have died of cholera, making up the majority of the 653 deaths recorded nationwide, according to the Nigeria Center for Disease Control.


Another ailment that Nigeria is afflicted with is malaria. Parasites transmit malaria to humans through the bites of female Anopheles mosquitoes. In 2019, there were 229 million cases of malaria worldwide, resulting in 409,000 fatalities. The most vulnerable age group is children under 5 years old, and in 2019, they were responsible for 274,000 or 67% of all malaria-related deaths globally. In the same year, the WHO African Area was home to 94% of malaria cases and fatalities. The most common parasite in Africa that causes malaria, P. Falciparum, can cause severe sickness and death within 24 hours despite the fact that the condition is preventable and treatable.

Almost 41 million Nigerians are assisted by the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI), which is led by USAID and the CDC. Notwithstanding the challenges COVID-19 posed in 2020, the PMI was able to help Nigeria deliver 14.7 million treatment doses for malaria, of which 8.2 million were given to children and pregnant women. Besides that, the "PMI also delivered 7.1 million insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs), gave 7.2 million quick test kits, and educated 9,300 health workers to diagnose and treat patients" of malaria. Just 23% of Nigerian families used bed nets prior to the PMI; since 2010, that percentage has increased to 43%. The PMI also seeks to strengthen healthcare delivery systems and medical personnel's capacity to provide services linked to malaria.


AIDS is caused by HIV, a virus that destroys the immune system (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). There is no treatment for the virus; rather, it can be controlled with appropriate medical care. As a result of the disease's chimpanzee origins in Central Africa, it is common across Africa. Infected blood from the animals presumably came into touch with hunters, which is how the virus most likely spread to people. HIV spread throughout Africa and other parts of the world over time, becoming one of the diseases affecting Nigeria presently.

In order to establish and maintain HIV response programs in Nigeria, the CDC collaborates with the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) and other organizations. The coordinated system in Nigeria is strengthened by the "data-driven approach" and preventative and treatment plans of the CDC. They consist of HIV counseling, HIV testing, HIV treatment, services to stop mother-to-child transmissions, and integrated TB and HIV services. The most common cause of mortality for those with HIV is TB.

Over 200,000 Nigerians who tested positive for HIV started receiving treatment between October 2019 and September 2020. Almost 1 million HIV-positive persons underwent TB testing during the same time frame. More than 5,000 of these people had TB tests that were positive and started receiving treatment. By the end of September 2020, the CDC had provided HIV/TB services to close to 25,000 orphans and other young people in need. Furthermore, TB BASICS, a program that "prevents healthcare-associated TB infection," is now used at all facilities in Nigeria that are supported by the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).

Nigeria will experience numerous diseases in 2021. On the other hand, significant progress is being made in educating the Nigerian populace about diseases including cholera, malaria, and HIV. Notwithstanding efforts, there is still a lot of work to be done in Nigeria to minimize disease.


0.42% of all deaths in Nigeria were caused by drug misuse, which claimed 6,273 lives. In contrast, 44,646 people died from congenital defects, and 95,959 people from low birth weight. 5.36% and 6.48%, respectively, of all deaths, were attributable to congenital abnormalities and low birth weight.

Both malaria and tuberculosis have major interventions, nevertheless, out of the top five diseases that caused the most fatalities in Nigeria. Even though diarrhea, birth trauma, and influenza/pneumonia are among the diseases with the highest fatality rates, there is no proven government intervention for any of these conditions.



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