Women health


symptoms of deaf and dumb child

The article was discussed with Master, Doctor Doan Ngoc Quynh Tram, a pediatrician and neonatologist at Vinmec Nha Trang Cambridge International Hospital's Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology.

There are numerous causes why babies are born deaf or stupid. However, there are a variety of reasons why a child could be born deaf or develop the condition later in life. However, pinpointing the condition's root cause isn't always achievable. A child's congenital deafness may occasionally require testing to try and identify the underlying cause, although only 40–50% of such youngsters will have their cause found.

1. What's really congenital deafness?

When the ear's capacity to transform the mechanical vibrational energy of sound into the electrical current of nerve impulses is compromised, congenital deafness—hearing loss at birth—occurs.

Depending on the damage's location, hearing loss is categorized as follows:

The outer or middle ear is affected by conductive hearing loss. When the middle ear, outer ear, or both are underdeveloped or the middle ear is temporarily blocked by an effusion, there is conductive hearing loss (as in cases of otitis media).

Severe hearing loss: Affects the inner ear, auditory nerve, or inner ear pathway. The types of sensorineural hearing loss include sensory hearing loss (occurs when hair cells are impacted), central hearing loss (occurs when the cause is located along the central auditory tract), and spectrum disorders. auditory nerve Conductive and sensorineural hearing loss are both considered to be forms of mixed hearing loss. SEE ALSO: Warning indications that youngsters may have hearing issues.

2. What causes deafness in newborn babies?

2.1. Prenatal causes of deafness Genetic causes, most frequently a gene deficiency, are the main cause of hearing loss in children. Different genetic mechanisms and morbidity rates can accompany these abnormalities.

The majority (80%) of hereditary cases of hearing loss, which is typically congenital, are caused by unrelated autosomal dominant nonsyndromic mutations.

The most frequent genetic cause of non-syndromic hearing loss, ranging from recessive to profound, is a mutation in the gap junction protein beta 2 gene, albeit the number of causal genes varies between groups and ethnicities (GJB2). Approximately 50% of nonsyndromic hereditary hearing loss in Caucasians in Europe and the United States is caused by mutations in this gene.

Whereas there doesn't seem to be a history of congenital deafness in that family, permanent deafness in children is most frequently inherited and passed down via generations.

Congenital deafness is linked to several of the most prevalent syndromes, such as:

The Alport syndrome Syndrome of the branchio-oto-renal (Gross-ear-renal slit syndrome) The CHARGE syndrome Disorder of Crouzon Down's syndrome.

Syndrome of Goldenhar Syndrome of Jervell and Lange Nielsen Pendred disease Syndrome of Stickler Collins-Treacher syndrome Syndrome of Usher Waardenburg syndrome types 1 and 2 Obstetrical problems might potentially result in congenital deafness. A kid may be born deaf as a result of infections like rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), toxoplasmosis, and herpes.

Congenital infection is another key risk factor for sensorineural hearing loss; in fact, congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most prevalent non-hereditary cause of this condition. The virus can be contracted through sex or coming into contact with an infected child's bodily fluids because it is communicated by bodily fluids like blood, saliva, and urine. CMV.

Congenital infection-related hearing loss risk may be significantly influenced by socioeconomic level. The risk of newborn infection is lower in nations where immunization programs and appropriate cleanliness standards are practiced. Congenital rubella infection is the main contributor to non-hereditary congenital hearing loss in nations lacking rubella vaccination programs. Ototoxicants are a class of medications that can harm a baby's hearing system even before they are born.

Cleft lip and palate can damage hearing, or it can occur on its own and be linked to one of the disorders mentioned above.

Otomegaly and ataxia can be linked to various types of deafness depending on which ear structure is not developing or working properly.

Socioeconomic status may have a major impact on the likelihood of congenital infection-related hearing loss. Countries that practice immunization programs and sufficient cleaning standards have reduced rates of neonatal infection. Non-hereditary congenital hearing loss is primarily caused by congenital rubella infection in countries without rubella vaccination programs. Ototoxicants are a group of drugs that can damage a baby's auditory system even before the baby is born.

Hearing loss is a risk associated with cleft lip and palate, which may also be linked to one of the aforementioned illnesses or may develop on its own.

Depending on whether ear structure is not growing or functioning correctly, otomegaly and ataxia may be associated with a variety of deafnesses.

2.3 Health risks for congenital deafness

The American Academy of Pediatrics has identified a number of risk factors for congenital hearing loss, which includes:

Permanent congenital hearing loss runs in the family. Intensive care units must be staffed with nurses to care for newborns. Hearing loss is more likely to occur as a result of medical procedures such as assisted ventilation, intravenous access, and aminoglycoside therapy in neonatal critical care units. Hospitalization lasting less than 12 days and a history of receiving high-frequency mechanical ventilation therapy was also found to be independent risk factors for hearing loss in this cohort.

A child's physical, mental, and emotional well-being are all negatively impacted by congenital deafness or hearing loss. As a result, children will have a greater chance of receiving therapy and early rehabilitation techniques if hearing issues are identified in children with impairments at an earlier stage. In light of this, it is imperative that parents take their children as soon as possible to be tested and screened for congenital deafness when they notice that they are behind their classmates academically while also exhibiting indicators of congenital deafness. Being born deaf will eventually cause muteness.

The Pediatrics Hospital at Vinmec International General Hospital has developed into one of the primary medical facilities capable of evaluating, screening for, and treating a variety of specialist pediatric ailments because of its extensive experience in diagnosing and treating diseases in children. So, if a kid exhibits symptoms of congenital deafness or hearing impairment, parents can bring the child to Vinmec World General Hospital for an evaluation and get help and guidance from professionals.

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