Women health

 Causes of infertility


You are not alone if you and your partner are having trouble getting pregnant. 10% to 15% of couples in the US struggle with infertility. Most couples define infertility as the inability to become pregnant while engaging in regular, unprotected intercourse for at least a year.

A problem with you or your spouse, or a combination of circumstances that hinder pregnancy, may cause infertility. Fortunately, there are numerous treatments that are risk-free and efficient and dramatically increase your chances of getting pregnant.


Not being able to get pregnant is the main sign of infertility. There might not be any other evident signs. Women who are infertile can experience irregular or nonexistent menstrual cycles. Men who are infertile occasionally show symptoms of hormone imbalances, such as changes in hair growth or sex patterns.

Without or with therapy, most couples will eventually become pregnant.

When to visit the doctor

If you haven't been trying to conceive on a regular basis for at least a year, you generally don't need to see your doctor about infertility. However, if the following apply, women should speak with a care provider sooner:

  1. Attempting to conceive for six months or more, and are 35 years of age or older.
  2. Age 40 or older
  3. Possess erratic or irregular menses
  4. Have really painful periods
  5. Experience with infertility
  6. Possess a diagnosis of endometriosis or an inflammatory condition in the pelvis
  7. Miscarried several times
  8. Possess a cancer diagnosis and therapy
  9. Men should seek medical attention if they have:
  10. Low sperm count or other sperm-related issues
  11. Testicular, prostate, or sexual issues in the past
  12. Cancer treatment usual
  13. Small testicles or scrotal enlargement
  14. Other infertility issues in your family


For ovulation and fertilization to take place as intended, every step must be completed successfully. When a couple experiences infertility, there are various factors that can be at play, some of which may even exist at birth.

One partner may be affected by the causes of infertility or both. No cause is always apparent.

Causes of infertility in men

They might consist of:

  1. Abnormal sperm synthesis or performance due to undeveloped testicles, genetic flaws, medical conditions like diabetes, or infections like chlamydia, gonorrhea, measles, or HIV. The quality of sperm can also be impacted by varicocele, an enlarged vein in the testes.
  2. Sperm delivery issues owing to sexual issues like early ejaculation, hereditary conditions like cystic fibrosis, structural issues such as a blockage in the testicle, or harm or injury to the reproductive organs.
  3. Overexposure to some environmental factors, such as radiation, chemical insecticides, and other substances. Fertility can also be impacted by using anabolic steroids, alcohol, marijuana, cigarette smoking, high blood pressure medicine, and anabolic steroids. The generation of sperm may be impacted by frequent exposure to heat, such as that seen in saunas or hot tubs.
  4. The risk from cancer and its treatment, chemotherapy, and radiation are included. Sperm production may occasionally suffer substantially after cancer treatment.

Causes of infertility in women

Infertility in women may have several causes, such as:

Ovarian dysfunction may influence the ovaries' ability to release eggs. Among them are endocrine conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome. The hormone that increases the production of breast milk, prolactin, which is present in excess amounts in the condition known as hyperprolactinemia, may also prevent ovulation. Menstrual cycle disruption or infertility can result from either too much (hyperthyroidism) or not enough (hypothyroidism) thyroid hormone. Overexercising, eating problems, or malignancies are examples of additional underlying reasons.

Anomalies in the cervix or uterus include uterine polyps, cervicofacial anomalies, or uterine abnormalities in terms of shape. By obstructing the fallopian tubes or preventing a fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus, noncancerous (benign) tumors in the uterine wall (uterine fibroids) may result in infertility.

  1. Blockage or injury to the fallopian tube is frequently brought on by fallopian tube inflammation (salpingitis). This may be the outcome of pelvic inflammatory disease, which is typically brought on by endometriosis, adhesions, or a sexually transmitted infection.
  2. Endometriosis happens when endometrial tissue protrudes from the uterus and may impact how the ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes work.
  3. First-degree ovarian insufficiency (early menopause), is when menstruation stops before the age of 40 and the ovaries stop producing eggs. Early menopause is linked to a number of things, including immune system disorders, genetic illnesses like Turner syndrome or carriers of Fragile X syndrome, radiation or chemotherapy treatment, and early menopause, despite the fact that the cause is frequently unclear.
  4. Adhesions in the uterus After pelvic surgery, appendicitis, endometriosis, or other abdominal or pelvic conditions, bands of scar tissue that connect the organs may develop.
  5. Treatment for cancer. Many malignancies, especially those of the reproductive system, affect female fertility. Fertility may be impacted by radiation and chemotherapy.

Risk factors

There are many similar risk factors for male and female infertility. They consist of:

  1.  Age-related losses in women's fertility are noticeable, especially in the mid-30s, and beyond age 37, it declines quickly. Infertility in older women is most often brought on by the decreasing quantity and caliber of eggs, though it can also be brought on by fertility-related health issues. Guys over 40 may have lower fertility than men of earlier ages.
  2. Using tobacco. Both partners using tobacco or marijuana may lessen the chance of getting pregnant. Additionally, smoking lowers the potential efficacy of reproductive treatments. Women who smoke are more likely to experience miscarriages. Men who smoke are more likely to experience erectile dysfunction and poor sperm counts.
  3. Using alcohol. There is no acceptable level of alcohol consumption for women during pregnancy or conception. Alcohol consumption may be a factor in infertility. Heavy drinking can reduce sperm count and motility in men.
  4. Being overweight Inactivity and obese may raise the risk of infertility in American women. Being overweight might also affect a man's sperm count.
  5. Being underweight Women who suffer from eating disorders like anorexia or bulimia and those who adhere to an extremely low-calorie or restrictive diet are at risk for having fertility issues.
  6. Exercise-related concerns. Obesity raises the risk of infertility and is a result of insufficient exercise. Less frequently, ovulation issues in women who are not overweight may be linked to regular, intensive, rigorous activity.


Some types of infertility cannot be avoided. But a few tactics might improve your chances of getting pregnant.


For the greatest chance of becoming pregnant, engage in regular sexual activity many times around ovulation. Your chances of getting pregnant increase if you have sexual relations for at least five days before and up to the day of ovulation. Ovulation typically happens in the middle of the cycle, or roughly 28 days after the last menstrual period, for the majority of women.


Although the majority of male infertility issues cannot be avoided, the following techniques may be useful:

  1. Avoid using drugs, smoking, and drinking excessive alcohol, which can all affect a man's ability to conceive.
  2. Avoid using hot tubs and hot baths as their high temperatures can momentarily impair sperm motility and production.
  3. Avoid being exposed to chemicals from the environment or from industry, as these can decrease sperm production.
  4. Limit prescription and over-the-counter medications that could affect fertility.
  5. If you frequently use any prescriptions, discuss them with your doctor; nevertheless, never cease using prescription drugs without first consulting a doctor.
  6. Engage in light exercise. Regular exercise may enhance sperm quality and raise pregnancy success rates.


Several tactics for women may raise their chances of getting pregnant: Engage in light exercise. While it's crucial to exercise regularly, fertility may be impacted if you exercise so hard that your periods become irregular or nonexistent.

  • Avoid extremes in weight. Your hormone production might be impacted by being overweight or underweight, which can lead to infertility.
  • Give up smoking. In addition to harming your overall health and the health of the fetus, smoking has other detrimental impacts on fertility. If you smoke and are thinking about getting pregnant, stop immediately.
  • Don't use alcohol or illegal drugs. Your ability to conceive and have a healthy pregnancy could be affected by these medications. If you're attempting to get pregnant, refrain from consuming alcohol and using recreational substances like marijuana.
  • Limit your caffeine intake. Caffeine consumption may need to be restricted for women attempting to get pregnant. For advice on how to take caffeine safely, consult your physician.
  • Engage in light exercise. While it's crucial to exercise regularly, fertility may be impacted if you exercise so hard that your periods become irregular or nonexistent.








































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