Women health

 Causes of pneumonia


An illness called pneumonia causes the air sacs in one or even both lungs to become inflamed. The air sacs may swell with fluid or pus (purulent material), which can lead to a cough that produces pus or phlegm, a fever, chills, and breathing difficulties. Pneumonia can be brought on by a number of different species, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi.

The severity of pneumonia can range from minor to life-threatening. The most vulnerable groups include newborns and young children, adults over 65, and those with health conditions or weaker immune systems.


Pneumonia can present with mild to severe signs and symptoms, depending on the type of germ that caused the illness, your age, and general health. Mild common symptoms frequently resemble cold or flu symptoms, but they linger longer.

Pneumonia symptoms and signs can also include:

  1. Chest aches when breathing or coughing
  2. Confusion or shifts in awareness (in adults age 65 and older)
  3. Fatigue Cough that could result in phlegm
  4. Fever, perspiration, and shivering chills
  5. Lower than usual body temperature (in adults older than age 65 and people with weak immune systems)
  6. Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
  7. Breathing difficulties

There may be no symptoms of the infection in newborns and young children. Also possible are vomiting, fever and cough, agitation, exhaustion, and lack of energy, as well as problems, with breathing and eating.

When to visit the doctor

Consult a physician if you experience breathing difficulties, chest pain, a persistent temperature of 102 F (39 C) or higher, or a chronic cough, particularly if you are coughing up the pus.

People in such high-risk groups should make an appointment with a doctor immediately:

  1. Adults who are above 65
  2. Children under the age of two who exhibit certain symptoms
  3. Individuals with underlying illnesses or compromised immune systems
  4. Those undergoing chemotherapy or taking immunosuppressive drugs

Pneumonia can swiftly turn into a life-threatening condition for some older adults, people with heart failure, and those with chronic lung conditions.


Pneumonia can be brought on by numerous bacteria. In the air we breathe, bacteria and viruses are the most prevalent. Usually, your body protects you from harmful bacteria getting into your lungs. But even if your health is normally strong, these viruses occasionally have the capacity to overwhelm your immune system.

Depending on the specific types of germs that cause illness and how you contracted the infection, there are several varieties of pneumonia.

Community pneumonia

Most pneumonia cases are caused by community-acquired pneumonia. It takes place apart from hospitals and other healthcare facilities. It could result from:

  1. Bacteria. Streptococcus pneumonia is the most frequent cause of bacterial pneumonia in the United States. This kind of pneumonia can develop independently or following a cold or the flu. Lobar pneumonia is a disorder that can only affect one lobe of the lung.
  2. Bacteria organism. Pneumonia can also be brought on by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Compared to other varieties of pneumonia, it often causes fewer severe symptoms. This sort of pneumonia, which often isn't severe enough to require bed rest, is known informally as "walking pneumonia."
  3. Fungi. People with weak immune systems or chronic health conditions are more likely to get this type of pneumonia, as are those who have breathed high concentrations of the microorganisms. Depending on the region, the funguses that cause it can be found in soil or bird droppings.
  4. Viral infections, such as COVID-19. Most viruses that cause the common cold and the flu can also lead to pneumonia. Pneumonia in children under the age of five is typically brought on by viruses. Most viral types of pneumonia are not severe. It can, however, occasionally get really bad. Pneumonia that might result from the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) is serious.

Pneumonia acquired in a hospital

Many patients who are in the hospital for another sickness also develop pneumonia. So because individuals who contract it are already ill and because the bacteria that cause it may be more resistant to treatments, hospital-acquired pneumonia can indeed be serious. This type of pneumonia is more common in patients who are using ventilators, which are common in intensive care units.

Pneumonia acquired in a medical facility

People who reside in long-term care facilities or who receive medical attention in outpatient clinics, particularly kidney dialysis facilities, are at risk for developing healthcare-acquired pneumonia, a bacterial infection. The same bacteria that can cause hospital-acquired pneumonia can also cause healthcare-acquired pneumonia, which is more difficult to treat with medications.

Spirometry pneumonia

Because once you inhale saliva, vomit, food, or liquids into your lungs, aspiration pneumonia happens. Aspiration is much more likely to occur if something interferes with your natural gag response, such as brain damage, swallowing issues, or excess alcohol or drug usage.

Risk indicators

Anyone can get pneumonia. However, the two age groups that are most at risk are:

  1. Children under the age of two
  2. Those who are at least 65 years old

Other danger signs consist of:

Being in a hospital In a hospital intensive care unit, you run a higher risk of developing pneumonia, especially if you depend on a breathing machine (a ventilator).

  1. Chronic illness If you have asthma, heart disease, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), you are more prone to getting pneumonia.
  2. Smoking. Smoking is when natural defenses your body has against viruses and bacteria that cause pneumonia are harmed.
  3. The immune system is repressed or weak. Anyone who has HIV/AIDS has undergone organ transplantation, is using long-term steroids, or has received chemotherapy is at risk.


Although with therapy, complications from pneumonia can arise for certain people, particularly for those in high-risk categories.

  1. Viruses and bacteria in the blood. When bacteria from your lungs enter your bloodstream, they can infect other organs and perhaps lead to organ failure.
  2. Resulting in difficulty breathing. You can find it difficult to breathe in enough oxygen if your pneumonia is severe or if you have underlying chronic lung conditions. While your lung heals, you might need to be hospitalized and utilize a ventilator.
  3. The buildup of fluid around the lungs (pleural effusion). The narrow area between layers of tissue that line the lungs and chest cavity may become clogged with fluid as a result of pneumonia (pleura). You might need to have the fluid removed surgically or through a chest tube if it becomes infected
  4. Lung infection. If pus accumulates in a lung cavity, an abscess develops. Antibiotics are typically used to treat an abscess. The pus may occasionally need to be removed through surgery or drainage using a long needle or tube inserted into the abscess.


To aid in preventing pneumonia:

  1. Getting vaccinated. Some forms of pneumonia and the flu can be prevented with vaccines. Consult your doctor about getting these shots. Even if you are aware that you have previously had a pneumonia vaccine, the immunization recommendations have changed over time, therefore it is important to discuss your vaccination status with your doctor.
  2. Make sure kids receive their vaccinations. For children under the age of 2 and for those between the ages of 2 and 5 who are particularly at risk for pneumococcal disease, doctors advise a separate pneumonia vaccine. Children who attend a group daycare facility also need to get a shot. Children older than six months are also advised to get flu vaccines by doctors.
  3. Maintain proper hygiene. Regular hand washing or the use of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer will help you prevent respiratory infections, which can occasionally develop into pneumonia.
  4. Avoid smoking. The natural defenses of your lungs against respiratory infections are harmed by smoking.
  5. Maintain a robust immune system. Get enough rest, work out frequently, and maintain a balanced diet.



Post a Comment

Previous Post Next Post